Cement Kilns

Barnstone

Barnstone cement logo

Barnstone Cement Co. Ltd logo. See what they're doing there? The village was actually called Barnston, but the name was officially changed in the 1920s to agree with the rebus. This logo appeared on jute bags: the colour scheme of the "official" logo is unknown. If you know the correct colours, please contact me.

Location:

  • Grid reference: SK73713505
  • x=473710
  • y=335050
  • 52°54'28"N; 0°54'14"W
  • Civil Parish: Langar cum Barnstone, Nottinghamshire

Clinker manufacture operational: 1886 to 1969

Approximate total clinker production: 3.7 million tonnes

Raw materials:

  • Blue Lias Limestone and shale (Blue Lias Formation, Barnstone Member: 197-200 Ma) from quarries at 474000,335000 and 473150,334650
  • After hand-picking of limestone ceased (early 1920s?), sweetener Inferior Oolite (Lower Lincolnshire Limestone Member: 168-172 Ma) from:
    • Waltham on the Wolds, Leicestershire 481300,325200 (13 km)
    • Sproxton, Leicestershire 486300,325100 (17 km)
    • Stroxton, Kesteven 488900,330600 (16 km)
  • After Portland cement manufacture ceased, only off-site materials were used.

Ownership:

  • 1875-1878 T & R Marshall
  • 1878-1896 Barnstone Blue Lias Lime Co.
  • 1896-1914 Barnstone Blue Lias Lime and Cement Co. Ltd
  • 1914-1942 Barnstone Cement Co. Ltd
  • 1942-2001 APCM (Blue Circle)
  • 2001-2006 Lafarge

Initially the plant made Blue Lias lime with sixteen bottle kilns. The first attempt to make Portland cement was in 1885, when a Ransome rotary kiln was installed. As with the others, it was ineffective, failing to reach clinkering temperature. An attempt to increase the temperature by recycling hot air from the cooler pit blocked the firing pipe and destroyed the gas producer. Actual manufacture began in 1886, using eight of the bottle kilns (output 125 t/week) in dry process mode. A Schneider kiln was installed in 1899 (output 60 t/week). Another pair of Schneider kilns was added before 1906. Davis (1907) rated the three at 200 t/week . An 18-chamber Hoffman ring was installed around 1908. It was decommissioned (although it remained in place) when rotary kiln A2 was installed. The Schneider kilns remained in intermittent use until 1937, and remained in place until the 1970s. The plant was reconstructed on a new site in 1927, and kiln A2 was subsequently (1937) moved to the new site and lengthened as B2. The plant was served from the outset by a 0.7 km spur from the Nottingham-Melton Mowbray branch railway. The plant ceased Portland production in 1969, but remained in use (with B2 only) until May 2006 as an experimental plant and to make non-Portland special clinkers and cements – predominantly sulfoaluminates.

Rawmills

For the rotary kiln plant there were two 224 kW 6'× 32’6” (1.829× 9.906) Edgar Allen "combination" mills.

Four distinct rotary kilns were installed:

Kiln A1

Supplier: Ransome
Operated: installed 1885 – never produced commercially
Process: “Long” Dry
Location: ? : entirely enclosed
Dimensions: 21’0”× 3’6” (metric 6.40 × 1.067)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: 1/17 (3.372°)
Speed: ?
Drive: worm drive from steam engine: power draw not known but probably around 150 W
Kiln profile: 0×1067: 6401×1067
Cooler: none
Fuel: Producer gas
Typical Output: 3 t/d (calculated - did not produce)
Typical Heat Consumption: 13.2 MJ/kg (calculated)


Kiln A2

Supplier: Edgar Allen
Operated: 1914-1936 (then moved and extended as B2)
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 473645,335164: Cold end 473615,335140 : entirely enclosed
Dimensions: 125’0”× 7’0” (metric 38.10 × 2.134)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: 0×2134: 38100×2134: Tyres at 3353, 16916, 31090
Cooler: rotary (Dimensions? not the same cooler used on B2) beneath kiln
Cooler profile: ?
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: ?
Typical Output: 77 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 8.5 MJ/kg


Kiln B1

Supplier: Edgar Allen
Operated: 1927-1969: removed 1972
Process: Wet: initially fitted with slurry sprays
Location: Hot end,: Cold end, : entirely enclosed
Dimensions: 150’0”× 8’6”B / 7’6”CD (metric 45.72 × 2.591 / 2.286)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: 0×2286: 3061×2286: 4699×2591: 12052×2591: 13697×2286: 45720×2286: Tyres at 2134, 14630, 28804, 42977
Cooler: rotary 55’0”× 5’0” (metric 16.76 × 1.524) beneath kiln
Cooler profile: 0×1524: 16764×1524: Tyres at 4267, 12370
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: Initially semi-indirect with turbo pulveriser. Later, direct: No16 Atritor
Typical Output: 1927-1937 108 t/d: 1937-1953 132 t/d: 1953-1960 149 t/d: 1960-1969 160 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1927-1937 8.08 MJ/kg: 1937-1953 7.39 MJ/kg: 1953-1960 7.65 MJ/kg: 1960-1969 6.87 MJ/kg


Kiln B2

Supplier: Edgar Allen, modified: was A2 extended by 25’ and re-sited
Operated: 1937-1969: non-Portland clinker production 1969-2006.
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end,: Cold end, : entirely enclosed
Dimensions:

  • 1937-1954?: 150’0”× 7’0”BC / 11'0"D (metric 45.72 × 2.134 / 3.353)
  • 1954?-2006: 150’0”× 7’0” (metric 45.72 × 2.134)

Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile:

  • 1937-1954?: 0×2134: 37795×2134: 39014×3353: 42062×3353: 42367×2134: 45720×2134: Tyres at 3353, 16916, 31090, 43891
  • 1954?-2006: 0×2134: 45720×2134: Tyres at 3353, 16916, 31090, 43891

Cooler: rotary 55’6”× 4’6” (metric 16.92 × 1.372) beneath kiln
Cooler profile: 0×1372: 406×1372: 1143×1676: 7468×1676: 8230×1372: 16916×1372: Tyres at 1543, 12649
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: Initially semi-indirect with turbo pulveriser. Later, direct: No16 Atritor
Typical Output: 1937-1949 115 t/d: 1949-1955 124 t/d: 1955-1963 131 t/d: 1963-1969 126 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1937-1955 7.45 MJ/kg: 1955-1963 7.48 MJ/kg: 1963-1969 6.72 MJ/kg



Sources: Francis, pp 219-220, 233-234: Jackson, pp 210, 270: Pugh, p 262: Circle 8 (1981) pp 10-11: “Electrical Equipment at the Barnstone Cement Works”, Cement and Cement Manufacture, 2, July 1929, pp 197-201. The local website contains some pictures.


© Dylan Moore 2011: commenced 10/08/2011: last edit 26/02/2017.

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Old Maps

A detail plan of the plant has been partially completed, but further progress is prevented by lack of information on the layout of the earlier plant.

Approximate capacity: tonnes per year
Barnstone clinker capacity