Materials used in the Cement Industry in Britain and Ireland
Almost any mineral can be used in a cement rawmix, provided that the bulk composition of the mixture will produce the desired calcium silicates and fluxes (see clinker), and provided that certain deleterious components are minimized. Broadly speaking, minerals containing high levels of calcium (usually the carbonate) are blended with lower-calcium minerals containing silicon, aluminium, and iron. Here follows a list of materials that have been used in cement manufacture in Britain and Ireland, arranged in order of their geological age. In addition to these, a number of industrial waste materials have been used as mix components throughout the history of the industry.