Some minerals encountered in cement manufacture

This gives the mass composition of a variety of minerals that can be used for modeling cement clinker and its raw materials, based on the standard oxide molecular masses. Densities (kg/m3) are generally x-ray values, and real-world values may deviate from these in unpredictable ways. The hardness values are the un-corrected Moh's Scale. The table can be easily pasted into Excel® if desired. Examples of use of the table values are given below.


Some minerals encountered in cement manufacture

Name Formula M Mass Density Moh's SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 LoI
(Note 1)
Na2O K2O SrO BaO ZnO TiO2 P2O5 Mn2O3 F
(Note 2)
Cl
(Note 2)
chemical mineral chemical CCN
Calcium silicates, aluminates and ferrites
tricalcium silicatealiteCa3SiO5C3S228.3165031204.526.3162373.68377
calcium orthosilicatebelite, larniteCa2SiO4C2S172.239103326634.8842465.11576
tricalcium disilicaterankiniteCa3Si2O7C3S2288.400803064641.6672258.33278
monocalcium silicatewollastoniteCaSiO3CS116.1617029094.551.7247148.27529
tricalcium aluminateCa3(AlO3)2C3A270.193483064637.7363962.26361
-mayeniteCa12Al14O33C12A71386.657742680551.4711748.52883
monocalcium aluminateCaAl2O4CA158.0386829456.564.5166635.48334
calcium dialuminategrossiteCaAl4O7CA2259.999952920778.4317721.56823
calcium hexaaluminatehiboniteCaAl12O19CA6667.845063500891.603238.39677
tetracalcium aluminoferritebrownmillerite2[Ca2AlFeO5]C4AF485.9590837325.520.9814532.8604246.15813
-(Note 3)Ca6Al4Fe2O15C6A2F700.0751536515.529.1286722.8101548.06118
dicalcium ferrite(Note 4)Ca2Fe2O5C2F271.8430040265.558.7428041.25720
Carbonates
calcium carbonatecalciteCaCO3100.087202710356.0285443.97146
magnesium carbonatemagnesiteMgCO384.314703010447.8029352.19707
calcium magnesium carbonatedolomiteCaMg(CO3)2CMĈ2184.401902866430.4104221.8571047.73248
iron (II) carbonatesideriteFeCO3115.854203944468.9177431.08226
manganese (II) carbonaterhodocrositeMnCO3114.947243699431.3275068.67250
strontium carbonatestrontianiteSrCO3147.6292037853.529.8110470.18896
barium carbonatewitheriteBaCO3197.3362043083.522.3019477.69806
calcium silicocarbonatespurriteCa3(SiO2)2CO3C5S2Ĉ444.565403024527.0305863.069919.89951
Sulfates
calcium sulfateβ-anhydriteCaSO4136.1431029523.541.1900458.80996
calcium sulfateγ-anhydrite(Note 5)CaSO4136.1431025582.541.1900458.80996
calcium sulfate hemihydratebassaniteCaSO4.0.5H2OCŜH0.5145.1507827332.538.6339055.160376.20574
calcium sulfate dihydrategypsumCaSO4.2H2OCŜH2172.173802310232.5702346.5028420.92694
sodium sulfatethenarditeNa2SO4142.044642663356.3665843.63342
potassium sulfatearcaniteK2SO4174.261702661345.9456754.05433
potassium sodium sulfateaphthitalite2[K3Na(SO4)2]K34664.829742703348.172159.3225342.50532
calcium potassium sulfatecalcium langbeiniteK2Ca2(SO4)3KC2Ŝ3446.5479026833.525.1159653.7897721.09427
calcium silicosulfateternesiteCa3(SiO2)2(SO4)C5S2Ŝ480.6213029735.525.0027658.3384516.65879
calcium sulfoaluminateye'elimiteCa4(AlO2)6SO4C4A3Ŝ610.2591326073.550.1236036.7564513.11995
-fluoroellestaditeCa10(SiO4)3(SO4)3F2C9S3Ŝ3.CaF21003.2214131104.517.9674155.8973323.942583.78748
-hydroxyellestaditeCa10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2C10S3Ŝ3H999.2393530664.518.0390156.1200924.037991.80291
strontium sulfatecelestiteSrSO4183.6851039723.543.5885756.41143
barium sulfatebariteBaSO4233.3921044803.534.3052365.69477
Halides
calcium fluoridefluoriteCaF278.074813179471.8252248.66718
sodium chloridehaliteNaCl58.441272163253.0266960.66176
potassium chloridesylviteKCl74.549801987263.1765647.55412
calcium chlorideCaCl2110.9810021542.550.5288363.88751
sodium hexafluoroaluminatecryoliteNa3AlF6209.941272965324.2832944.2830654.29634
Aluminosilicates
-kaoliniteSi2Al2O5(OH)4S2AH2258.160582594246.5480139.4952913.95670
-pyrophyllite2[Si2AlO5OH]S4AH360.3138328631.566.7021928.297914.99991
-orthoclase2[KAlSi3O8]KAS6556.6630825706.564.7619418.3165216.92155
-albite2[NaAlSi3O8]NAS6524.4460226206.568.7403119.4417111.81798
-anorthiteCaAl2Si2O8CAS2278.2072827606.543.1939136.6493920.15670
-gehleniteCa2Al2SiO7C2AS274.2003830395.521.9125537.1849540.90250
-mulliteAl6Si2O13A3S2426.052433166728.2051271.79488
-muscovite2[KAl3Si3O10(OH)2]KA3S6H2796.616332831345.2546338.397894.5229711.82451
-paragonite2[NaAl3Si3O10(OH)2]NA3S6H2764.399272893347.1619840.016244.713608.10819
-phlogopite2[KMg3AlSi3O10(OH)2]KM6AS6H2834.5231827842.543.1990212.2179128.978154.3175211.28740
-chamositeFe5Al2Si3O10(OH)8713.497583319225.2632814.2903555.952614.49376
-clinochloreMg5Al2Si3O10(OH)8M5AS3H4555.800082585232.4312518.3449636.2584512.96535
Other silicates
magnesium orthosilicateforsteriteMg2SiO4M2S140.694103214742.7056357.29437
iron (II) orthosilicatefayaliteFe2SiO4203.773104393729.4858878.36569-7.85158
magnesium metasilicateenstatiteMgSiO3MS100.389203194659.8513640.14864
iron (II) metasilicateferrosiliteFeSiO3131.928703998645.5430160.52064-6.06365
Phosphates
calcium orthophosphatewhitlockiteCa3(PO4)2C3P310.176723140554.2375345.76247
calcium fluorophosphatefluoroapatite2[Ca5(PO4)3F]C9P3.CaF21008.604983201555.5989742.220053.76726
calcium hydroxyphosphatehydroxyapatite2[Ca5(PO4)3(OH)]C10P3H1004.622923155555.819351.7932442.38740
Oxides, hydroxides and hydrates
aluminium hydrogen oxidediaspore2[AlHO2]AH119.9766333787.584.9842815.01572
aluminium oxide hydroxideboehmite2[AlO(OH)]AH119.9766330713.584.9842815.01572
aluminium trihydroxidegibbsite2[Al(OH)3]AH3156.007332441365.3567234.64328
α-iron (III) hydrogen oxidegoethite2[FeHO2]FH177.7035542695.589.8621310.13787
γ-iron (III) oxide hydroxidelepidocrocite2[FeO(OH)]FH177.703553973589.8621310.13787
iron (II,III) oxidemagnetiteFe3O4231.5326052006.5103.45511-3.45511
manganese (II,III) oxidehausmanniteMn3O4228.8117348735.5-3.49619103.49619
calcium hydroxideportlanditeCa(OH)2CH74.0927522422.575.6854124.31459
calcium silicate hydrate(Note 6)Ca3Si2O4(OH)6C3S2H3342.4468522703.535.0911749.1265115.78232
tricalcium aluminate hydrateCa3(AlO2)2(OH)4.4H2OC3AH6378.28558252726.9535244.4722728.57421
(Note 7)afm-phaseCa4(AlO2)2(SO4)(OH)4.10H2OC4AŜH12622.52078201016.3787736.0324712.8615334.72723
(Note 8)ettringiteCa6(AlO2)2(SO4)3(OH)4.30H2OC63H321255.1139817752.58.1236726.8074819.1374745.93138
-syngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2.H2OKCŜ2H328.4201526072.517.0749048.758095.4854628.68155
magnesium hydroxidebruciteMg(OH)2MH58.3202523682.569.1096130.89039
calcium titanium oxideperovskiteCaTiO3CT135.9432040445.541.2506158.74939
iron (II) titanium oxideilmeniteFeTiO3151.710204788652.62936-5.2730152.64366
Sulfides
iron (II) disulfidepyriteFeS2119.9800050126.566.54784133.46508-100.01292
zinc sulfidewurziteZnS97.447504086482.16291-65.6739383.51102

Note 1. The "loss on ignition" assumes complete decarbonation and dehydration, and oxidation to the standard oxidation state.

Note 2. Fluorine and chlorine displace oxygen from the oxides, so in totalising cement analyses containing F or Cl, their oxygen equivalent must be deducted - i.e. Total = [sum of analytes] - 0.42107F - 0.22565Cl.

Note 3. The higher-alumina end member of the brownmillerite solid solution series, and typical of the ferrite phase in lower alumina ratio cements

Note 4. The high-iron end member of the brownmillerite solid solution series.

Note 5. This mineral does not physically exist: it represents the imaginary n=0 end member of the bassanite (CaSO4.nH2O) series, but bassanite converts to β-anhydrite when n falls below 0.05.

Note 6. "C-S-H" - represents the hydration product of alite and belite.

Note 7. "monosulfate" phase

Note 8. "aft phase"

As a calculation example - arrange the composition (as ratio rather than percentage) of the "Bogue Compounds" in a table thus:

SiO2Al2O3Fe2O3CaOSO3
C3S0.2631623000.73683770
C2S0.3488424000.65115760
C3A00.377363900.62263610
C4AF00.20981450.32860420.46158130
00041.1900458.80996

Now perform an inversion (=minverse in Excel®) on this 5×5 matrix. The result is:

C3SC2SC3AC4AF
SiO2-7.599878.59987000
Al2O3-6.717745.067782.6499600
Fe2O3-1.429761.07860-1.692013.043170
CaO4.07145-3.07145000
SO3-2.851612.15122001.70040

This gives the coefficients of the familiar "Bogue" equations - for instance, in the first column, C3S = (-7.600)SiO2 + (-6.718) Al2O3 + (-1.430) Fe2O3 + 4.071 CaO + (-2.852) SO3. By this means, it is possible to obtain equations for any desired combination of phases, of any complexity.