Cement Kilns

Atomic and Molecular Mass in Cement Chemistry


The following are the basis for stoichiometric calculations in cement chemistry, and are used to derive the data in the Minerals Table. Although the values are not derived from any particular source, they will be found to be in line with the IUPAC 2014 ascribed values. The error values are the 1-SD confidence limits in an assumed Gaussian distribution, except where given in bold, in which case they are the half-width of a rectangular distribution. The valency implied by the oxide formula is that which is normally expected in Portland clinker. The value of molecular mass given is, for the purposes of this work, a pure number (and not a physical quantity), and thus has no error. Where errors need to be derived - for example, in order to define the precision of "Bogue"-type calculations - be aware that, because of geochemical co-variance, this is not a staightforward process, and must be tailored to the nature of the raw materials used on an ad hoc basis. Densities (kg/m3) are generally x-ray values, and real-world values may deviate from these in unpredictable ways. The hardness values are the un-corrected Mho's Scale. In the last column, the mineral name of the oxide is given where appropriate. In many instances - for instance, the alkali oxides - the compounds do not exist in isolation. It's easy to paste this table into Excel® if desired.


Atomic and Molecular Masses

Element Sym Z AMass Error Oxide CCN MMass Dens Moh's
HydrogenH11.0079750.000135H2OH18.015350998.21liquid
HeliumHe24.0026020.000002
Lithium Li36.96750.0295Li2O29.93442014
Beryllium Be49.01218310.0000005BeO25.01158313010.44bromellite
BoronB510.81350.0075B2O369.62522460
CarbonC612.0110.001CO2Ĉ44.00982180solid
NitrogenN714.0068550.000425
OxygenO815.999400.00037
FluorineF918.9984031630.000000006
NeonNe1020.17970.0006
Sodium Na1122.989769280.00000002Na2ON61.978938562270
Magnesium Mg1224.30550.0015MgOM40.304935815.5periclase
AluminiumAl1326.98153850.0000007Al2O3A101.96127703986.99corundum
Silicon Si1428.08550.001SiO2S60.08432648.37quartz
PhosphorusP1530.9737619980.000000003P2O5P141.9445239962390
SulfurS1632.06750.0085SO3Ŝ80.06571970
ChlorineCl1735.45150.0055
ArgonAr1839.9480.001
Potassium K1939.09830.0001K2OK94.19602320
Calcium Ca2040.0780.004CaOC56.07743345.35lime
ScandiumSc2144.9559080.000005Sc2O3137.9100163864
TitaniumTi2247.8670.001TiO2T79.86584245.36.5rutile
VanadiumV2350.94150.0001V2O5181.88003356
ChromiumCr2451.99610.0006Cr2O3151.990452256eskolaite
Manganese Mn2554.9380440.000003Mn2O3157.87428850326.5bixbyite
Iron Fe2655.8450.002Fe2O3F159.68825274.95.5hematite
Cobalt Co2758.9331940.000004CoO74.93259464385.5
Nickel Ni2858.69340.0004NiO74.692868095.5bunsenite
Copper Cu2963.5460.003CuO79.54546509tenorite
Zinc Zn3065.380.02ZnO81.379456754zincite
Gallium Ga3169.7230.001Ga2O3187.44426476.28
Germanium Ge3272.6300.001GeO2104.62886277.76.5
Arsenic As3374.9215950.000006As2O5229.8401904320
SeleniumSe3478.9710.008SeO3126.96923600
Bromine Br3579.9040.003
KryptonKr3683.7980.002
RubidiumRb3785.46780.0003Rb2O186.93503720
Strontium Sr3887.620.01SrO103.61944700
YttriumY3988.905840.00002Y2O3225.809885010
Zirconium Zr4091.2240.002ZrO2123.22285826.76.5baddeleyite
Niobium Nb4192.906370.00002Nb2O5265.809744470
Molybdenum Mo4295.950.01MoO3143.94824710molybdite
TechnetiumTc4398.91Tc2O7309.8158
Ruthenium Ru44101.070.02RuO117.0694
Rhodium Rh45102.905500.00002RhO2134.904307404
Palladium Pd46106.420.01Pd2O228.83946671
Silver Ag47107.86820.0002Ag2O231.73587140
Cadmium Cd48112.4140.004CdO128.41348238.65.5monteponite
Indium In49114.8180.001In2O3277.63427179
Tin Sn50118.7100.007SnO134.70946430
AntimonySb51121.7600.001Sb2O5323.51703800
Tellurium Te52127.600.03TeO3175.59826210
IodineI53126.904470.00003
XenonXe54131.2930.006
Caesium Cs55132.905451960.00000006Cs2O281.810303924250
Barium Ba56137.3270.007BaO153.32645720
Lanthanum La57138.905470.00007La2O3325.809146506
Cerium Ce58140.1160.001Ce2O3328.23026830
Praseodymium Pr59140.907660.00002Pr2O3329.813527065
Neodymium Nd60144.2420.003Nd2O3336.48227310
PromethiumPm61144.91Pm2O3337.81828347
SamariumSm62150.360.02Sm2O3348.71826930
EuropiumEu63151.9640.001EuO167.96346930
Gadolinium Gd64157.250.03Gd2O3362.49827402
Terbium Tb65158.925350.00002Tb2O3365.848907040
Dysprosium Dy66162.5000.001Dy2O3372.99827817
Holmium Ho67164.930330.00002Ho2O3377.858868330
Erbium Er68167.2590.003Er2O3382.51628655
Thulium Tm69168.934220.00002Tm2O3385.866648845
Ytterbium Yb70173.0540.005Yb2O3394.10629145
LutetiumLu71174.96680.0001Lu2O3397.93189430
Hafnium Hf72178.490.02HfO2210.4888101086.5
TantalumTa73180.947880.00002Ta2O5441.892768200
TungstenW74183.840.01WO3231.83827160
Rhenium Re75186.2070.001Re2O7484.40986103
Osmium Os76190.230.03OsO206.2294
Iridium Ir77192.2170.003IrO2224.21581165
PlatinumPt78195.0840.009PtO2227.082810200
Gold Au79196.9665690.000005
Mercury Hg80200.5920.003HgO216.5914112102.5montroydite
ThalliumTl81204.38350.0015Tl2O424.76649515
Lead Pb82207.20.1PbO223.199496412
Bismuth Bi83208.980400.00001Bi2O3465.959009371
PoloniumPo84208.98PoO2240.97888880
AstatineAt85209.99
RadonRn86222.02
FranciumFr87223.02Fr2O462.0394
RadiumRa88226.03RaO242.0294
ActiniumAc89227.03Ac2O3502.05829190
Thorium Th90232.03770.0004ThO2264.0365100126.5thorianite
ProtactiniumPa91231.035880.00002Pa2O5542.06876
UraniumU92238.028910.00003UO3286.027117290
NeptuniumNp93237.05Np2O5554.0970
PlutoniumPu94244.06PuO2276.0588
AmericiumAm95243.06Am2O3534.1182
CuriumCm96247.07Cm2O3542.1382
BerkeliumBk97247.07Bk2O3542.1382
CaliforniumCf98251.08Cf2O3550.1582
EinsteiniumEs99252.08Es2O3552.1582
FermiumFm100257.10Fm2O3562.1982
MendeleviumMd101258.10Md2O3564.1982
NobeliumNo102259.10No2O3566.1982
LawrenciumLr103262.11Lr2O3572.2182
RutherfordiumRf104265.12RfO2297.1188
DubniumDb105268.13Db2O5616.2570
SeaborgiumSg106271.13SgO3319.1282
BohriumBh107272.14Bh2O7656.2758
HassiumHs108270.13HsO2302.1288
MeitneriumMt109276.15MtO2308.1488
DarmstadtiumDs110281.16DsO2313.1588
RoentgeniumRg111280.16
CoperniciumCn112285.17CnO301.1694

© Dylan Moore 2015: last edit 25/02/2016.

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