Cement Kilns

Sussex Portland Cement: Tied Houses at Upper Beeding

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Between 1898 and 1903, the Sussex Portland Cement Co Ltd built 45 houses for their workforce just north of the Shoreham plant. The census returns for 1901 and 1911 show the development of these, and give an interesting insight into the nature of the workforce.

The fact that most of the houses were crammed with people - often with two housholds in a house, and numerous "boarders" and "lodgers" - is not surprising. It is typical of the housing in new industrial areas at the time. What its more striking is the cosmopolitan nature of the community, with workers drawn in from all over Britain.

The occupations listed indicate the nature of the workforce at a plant that at the time was still predominantly based on static kiln production. Many of those labelled simply as labourer probably had more specialised jobs than this implies. By far the most common specialised occupation mentioned is "kiln loader", digging dried slurry from the chambers of chamber kilns, and transferring it to the kiln for burning. In the 1911 census, there were also a number of contractors, working on the Kiln 3 installation, who had been billeted in the company housing.

The 1901 census took place on 31st March, and finds the development partially built, with 17 houses in occupation, and a further ten under construction. Many who subsequently moved in were at this time living in the surrounding villages. Svend Caspersen, one of two Danes supplied by F L Smidth, was staying with his wife in the same house as the chief engineer. These two came for the construction and commissioning of the first two rotary kilns, and stayed, on and off, for nearly ten years.

There were at this stage in total 92 people - 61 male and 31 female, the sex ratio indicating the large number of single male immigrants. There were 5.4 people per house on average minimum 2, maximum 8).

AddressNameAgeOccupationBirthplaceBirth County
Cliff HouseThomas Don32ForemanPlaistowLondon
1 Dacre GardensJames C Woolson29Kiln LoaderWarminghurstSussex
1 Dacre GardensWilliam F Kneller21TimekeeperBroughtonHants
1 Dacre GardensAlbert Double24ForemanSouthwickSussex
2 Dacre GardensHenry Masterson43Cement MillerIslingtonLondon
2 Dacre GardensAlfred Salmon29Fitter's MateBures St MarySuffolk
2 Dacre GardensEdwin Richards24Kiln LoaderShorehamSussex
2 Dacre GardensArthur Plumb22Kiln LoaderSudburySuffolk
2 Dacre GardensWilliam Snelling21FitterSouthwickSussex
2 Dacre GardensCharles Gibbs20Fitter's MateSnodlandKent
3 Dacre GardensJames Roberts38QuarrymanSteyningSussex
3 Dacre GardensWilliam G Cherriman22LabourerWest GrinsteadSussex
3 Dacre GardensCharles Cherriman19LabourerUpper BeedingSussex
4 Dacre GardensWalter Moase37Kiln LoaderParhamSussex
4 Dacre GardensThomas Clarke37Kiln LoaderBostonLincs
4 Dacre GardensEdward Hayles24BricklayerFindonSussex
5 Dacre GardensErnest J Chalcraft28Kiln LoaderSteyningSussex
5 Dacre GardensWilliam Avis38Engine FitterLambethLondon
6 Dacre GardensAlbert Elliott39LabourerStorringtonSussex
6 Dacre GardensLeonard Elliott16LabourerBotolphsSussex
6 Dacre GardensAbraham Hunt19LabourerBoxgroveSussex
6 Dacre GardensJoseph Kenyon32LabourerBurnleyLancs
7 Dacre GardensAlfred E House22LabourerBuckland NewtonDorset
7 Dacre GardensNelson House21Kiln LoaderBuckland NewtonDorset
7 Dacre GardensThomas House15Kiln LoaderBuckland NewtonDorset
7 Dacre GardensFrederick Woolen38WeighmanDevizesWilts
8 Dacre GardensRichard Nulley42StokerBrightonSussex
8 Dacre GardensFrederick Truegrow40LabourerHenfieldSussex
8 Dacre GardensJohn Brown49LabourerHastingsSussex
8 Dacre GardensHenry Gibbins50LabourerHastingsSussex
9 Dacre GardensEdward Terry45StorekeeperWindsorBerks
9 Dacre GardensEdward W Terry13Trolley boyHastingsSussex
9 Dacre GardensWilliam S Parker24LabourerBrightonSussex
10 Dacre GardensJoseph Holder23SlurrymanBrightonSussex
10 Dacre GardensHugh Campbell22Chemical AnalystCrieffPerth
11 Dacre GardensEdmund Packham45Engineering ForemanPimlicoLondon
11 Dacre GardensSvend Caspersen27Cement ExpertDenmark
12 Dacre GardensJohn O Brand28Engine FitterWickham MarketSuffolk
19 Dacre GardensGeorge Dick17LabourerFinsburyLondon
19 Dacre GardensJames Holder20LabourerHenfieldSussex
19 Dacre GardensThomas Woolgar18LabourerHenfieldSussex
20 Dacre GardensJoseph Mallinson30FitterLongwoodWest Yorks
21 Dacre GardensFrederick Hall46CarpenterLondonLondon
22 Dacre GardensAlfred Simmons25BricklayerBrightonSussex

The 1911 census took place on 2nd April, and by now occupancy was reaching a mature stage. There are many names among the residents that were familiar throughout the subsequent history of the plant.

There were at this stage in total 287 people - 163 male and 124 female. There were 6.4 people per house on average (minimum 3, maximum 12).

AddressNameAgeOccupationBirthplaceBirth County
Cliff HouseAlbert Double34ManagerSouthwickSussex
1 Dacre VillasAlfred S Shelbourne34Foreman FitterHitchinHerts
2 Dacre VillasWilliam Ollerenshaw50Electrical EngineerClayton-le-moorsLancs
2 Dacre VillasJames Keith Campbell26Chemical AnalystCrieffPerth
1 Dacre GardensJoseph Holder33MillerBrightonSussex
1 Dacre GardensBenjamin Brear32Civil EngineerAddinghamWest Yorks
1 Dacre GardensJoseph Brear18CarpenterAddinghamWest Yorks
2 Dacre GardensHedley Early41Engine FitterWantageBerks
2 Dacre GardensHarry Early16Electrician's MateWorthingSussex
2 Dacre GardensAlfred Salmon39Stationary Engine DriverBures St MarySuffolk
3 Dacre GardensWilliam George Brown41Kiln DrawerPoplarLondon
4 Dacre GardensWalter Moase47Rotary Kiln BurnerParhamSussex
4 Dacre GardensGeorge Moase17Laboratory AssistantBramberSussex
4 Dacre GardensThomas Clarke48Schneider Kiln BurnerBostonLincs
5 Dacre GardensErnest J Chalcraft39Kiln LoaderSteyningSussex
5 Dacre GardensHenry Thompson32LabourerBournemouthHants
6 Dacre GardensFrederick Carr29LabourerNutleySussex
7 Dacre GardensWilliam M Scott32Fitter's MateGlasgowLanark
7 Dacre GardensCharles Gladman36LabourerAngmeringSussex
7 Dacre GardensGeorge Gladman15LabourerAngmeringSussex
8 Dacre GardensJames Fieldwick37LabourerFletchingSussex
8 Dacre GardensFrank Pierce26LabourerWokingSurrey
8 Dacre GardensWilliam Skinner21LabourerBrightonSussex
9 Dacre GardensEdward Terry55StorekeeperWindsorBerks
10 Dacre GardensWilliam Langley35Stationary Engine AttendantHenfieldSussex
11 Dacre GardensJohn H May42Gas Plant OperatorBrightonSussex
12 Dacre GardensWalter T Dalton52Cement MillerDarenthKent
19 Dacre GardensAlfred Simmons35BricklayerBrightonSussex
20 Dacre GardensThomas Searle61LabourerStorringtonSussex
20 Dacre GardensThomas Searle31LabourerSteyningSussex
20 Dacre GardensErnest Searle23Engineer's LabourerSteyningSussex
20 Dacre GardensArthur Searle21Engineer's LabourerSteyningSussex
21 Dacre GardensJohn Silver44Cement MillerBethnal GreenLondon
21 Dacre GardensCharles French20LabourerLewesSussex
21 Dacre GardensWilliam Hipps19LabourerTollard RoyalWilts
21 Dacre GardensFrancis O Nellis23LabourerBethnal GreenLondon
21 Dacre GardensFrederick Douglas46LabourerBrightonSussex
22 Dacre GardensJohn Pearce47LabourerStroodKent
23 Dacre GardensEdward H Soughton31LabourerSeafordSussex
23 Dacre GardensArthur Williamson44Fitter's MateManchesterLancs
24 Dacre GardensGeorge F Champion28Crane DriverSwinefleetWest Yorks
24 Dacre GardensCharles J Fuller39LabourerHastingsSussex
25 Dacre GardensAlfred H Groves28Gas Engine AttendantUpper BeedingSussex
26 Dacre GardensAlfred H Thompson29ClerkBrightonSussex
26 Dacre GardensHarry A Jeffery34MillerSouthwickSussex
26 Dacre GardensHenry Masterson50Cement MillerIslingtonLondon
26 Dacre GardensGeorge Parker32LabourerArundelSussex
27 Dacre GardensCharles W Keywood26Kiln LoaderBramberSussex
27 Dacre GardensHenry Ashdown54LabourerTonbridgeKent
28 Dacre GardensWilliam A Waghorn40BlacksmithTunbridge WellsKent
29 Dacre GardensHarry Denyer26Gas Plant StokerShorehamSussex
29 Dacre GardensCecil E Thomas19Fitter's ApprenticeSouthamptonHants
30 Dacre GardensStuart Balding32BargeeTunbridge WellsKent
31 Dacre GardensCharles Cherriman29Kiln LoaderHenfieldSussex
31 Dacre GardensRichard Stillaway25Slurry ManShorehamSussex
32 Dacre GardensWalter J Hilder47LabourerWadhurstSussex
32 Dacre GardensWalter H T Hilder25LabourerWadhurstSussex
32 Dacre GardensGeorge J Hilder16LabourerPaddock WoodKent
33 Dacre GardensCharles Dance40PlatelayerSouthamptonHants
33 Dacre GardensRichard Sawyer33Kiln LoaderMaidstoneKent
34 Dacre GardensEdward Ransom28LabourerNewhavenSussex
35 Dacre GardensAlbert Newman36Coal MillerRomseyHants
36 Dacre GardensSydney H Thomas44LabourerWinchesterHants
36 Dacre GardensHerbert S Thomas15LabourerSouthamptonHants
36 Dacre GardensThomas E Gunn37ShunterBrightonSussex
37 Dacre GardensJohn Peachey35Gas Engine AttendantStratford St MarySuffolk
37 Dacre GardensMartin F Budgen23BricklayerBrightonSussex
38 Dacre GardensGeorge Goldsmith38FitterShorehamSussex
39 Dacre GardensJames F J Bridger34Foreman Cement LoaderWorthingSussex
40 Dacre GardensCharles W Upcott56CarpenterTopshamDevon
41 Dacre GardensCharles Boyce48Locomotive DriverBrightonSussex
42 Dacre GardensWilliam Parker40Rotary Kiln BurnerArundelSussex
43 Dacre GardensThomas R Barber35QuarrymanNewhavenSussex
43 Dacre GardensCharles Floyd20Laboratory AssistantActonLondon
44 Dacre GardensRichard F Akehurst37QuarrymanNewhavenSussex
44 Dacre GardensWalter Pepper28Contractor Pile DriverEssex
44 Dacre GardensJames W Parker26Contractor Pile Driver?
44 Dacre GardensGeorge Downey40LabourerExeterDevon
44 Dacre GardensWilliam G Holdbrook31Engine FitterLondonLondon
45 Dacre GardensJ Shepherd40StokerBristolGloucs
45 Dacre GardensI Parkinson29Contractors Clerk of WorksLittle LeverLancs
45 Dacre GardensG Apted50LabourerBrightonSussex
45 Dacre GardensH Linton29LabourerBrightonSussex
46 Dacre GardensGeorge A Akehurst38QuarrymanHeightonSussex
46 Dacre GardensCharles Comber25LabourerPortsladeSussex
47 Dacre GardensG W Lewis34Crane DriverAngmeringSussex
47 Dacre GardensWilliam Kinchell42LabourerSteyningSussex
48 Dacre GardensAlec Bailey36LabourerShorehamSussex
48 Dacre GardensFrederick Wood36LabourerCopthorneSussex

Original content © Dylan Moore 2014: last edit 26/04/14.

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