Cement Kilns

Wouldham (Essex)

Wouldham LogoWouldham Cement Co. (1900) Ltd. Maltese Cross Brand (sometimes called Red Cross). One of several, others being Delta, Keystone and Union Jack.

Location:

  • Grid reference: TQ59957757
  • x=559950
  • y=177570
  • 51°28'28"N; 0°18'12"E
  • Civil Parish: Stifford, Essex: partly in West Thurrock

Clinker manufacture operational: 1874-1976

Approximate total clinker production: 21.7 million tonnes (21st)

Raw materials:

  • Upper Chalk (Seaford Chalk Formation: 85-88 Ma) from quarries at 559800,178600 and 559800,179100. It also absorbed the quarries of the Thames and Grays plants.
  • Initially, Thames Alluvial Clay. From 1930, London Clay (London Clay Formation: 48-55 Ma) dug at 561000,181800 (South Ockendon) was slurried at the pit and pumped to the plant.

Ownership:

  • 1874-1880 Lion Cement Works Co.
  • 1880-1898 A. D. Robertson and Sons Ltd
  • 1898-1900 S. Pearson & Son Ltd
  • 1900-1911 Wouldham Cement Co. (1900) Ltd
  • 1911-1976 BPCM (Blue Circle)

This was originally called the Lion Works: it received its later name as a result of Robertson’s transfer of business from Wouldham, Kent. Originally using two wet process bottle kilns, three more were added in 1880, giving a total 150 t/week. Around 1888 a set of six chamber kilns (140 t/week) were built. A second similar set were added around 1892, and in 1896 a third set of six (170 t/week) was installed, and the bottle kilns were removed, giving a total 450 t/week in 1897. In 1898, a block of 14 chamber kilns (420 t/week) was built. Pearson’s aimed to upgrade the plant to state-of-art and formed the Wouldham company as a 50:50 partnership with J. B. White & Bros. who made over one sixth of the purported patent rotary kiln production rights to the new company, to the consternation of the other APCM participants, particularly when the new company refused to join the combine. On the strength of this, the company installed six rotary kilns in 1901, and the plant is one of those claiming (with scant justification - see article) to have operated the first successful rotary kiln.

Read a description of plant in 1902.

Although there is no explicit account to this effect, it would appear that these kilns were entirely replaced in around 1907. At this time the original six steel stacks were replaced with the five brick stacks that remained until the 1920s. The old kilns were probably used as coolers, and the original kilns may have been located in what was later the cooler house. Davis’ 1907 capacity of 2500 t/week included 870 t/week of chamber capacity and a claimed 1630 t/week (say an average 1.7 t/hr) from the rotary kilns. The third block of chamber kilns was shut down in 1911: the rest remained as top-up capacity until 1922, and remained in ruins until the closure of the plant.

Meanwhile, FLS provided kilns B7-B9. B7 and B8, identical to the contemporary Harefield A1, were immediately sufficiently successful to prompt the order of the much larger B9, which became in 1912 Britain’s largest kiln until 1922 when it was overtaken by the FLS installations at Kent. The dynamism of Wouldham at this time probably prompted FLS’s interest in the nearby West Thurrock as a demonstration project. The plant ran through both World Wars. Under Blue Circle management, development of capacity and efficiency continued with the installation of the Vickers Armstrong kilns B10 and B11, based on the design of the successful Johnsons A6 and A7. Kilns B9-B11 were operated with occasional help from the inefficient B7 and B8. Following WWII, difficulty in extending reserves and pressure from West Thurrock considerably reduced its importance in the Blue Circle hierarchy. The plant made sulfate resisting clinker alongside ordinary clinker, and later solely SR, from the late 1950 to 1976. With the closure of Metropolitan in 1970, it was the last Blue Circle plant on the north bank of the Thames. In 1974, following major re-engineering, it was written: “this large project will give the works a secure future in the Blue Circle Group”. It closed two years later. The post-oil-crisis period required reduced capacity, and its fuel consumption, still around 8 MJ/kg, made it a prime target for closure, and when the kilns stopped in August 1976, this marked the extinction of the Essex industry.

A rail link was established after WWI, but much of its product continued to be despatched by barge until closure. Kept for a while as a depot fed by barge from Northfleet, a section of silos and packing plant was kept, and remains. The rest of the site was redeveloped, and is currently covered by port facilities.

Seventeen rotary kilns were installed:

Kiln A1

Supplier: Fellner & Ziegler
Operated: 1901-1907?
Process: Wet
Location: Not known exactly, but somewhere in the vicinity of the later B1: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions: 70’0”× 4’11” (metric 21.34 × 1.499)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: ?
Cooler: rotary: size?
Cooler profile: ?
Fuel: indirect fired with Coal
Coal mill: indirect fired - fine coal was provided by a set of Griffin mills shared by kilns 1-6.
Exhaust: direct to stack.
Typical Output: 24 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 10.0 MJ/kg

Kiln A2

Operated: 1901-1907?
Location: ?: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to A1

Kiln A3

Operated: 1901-1907?
Location: ?: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to A1

Kiln A4

Operated: 1901-1907?
Location: ?: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to A1

Kiln A5

Operated: 1901-1907?
Location: ?: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to A1

Kiln A6

Operated: 1901-1907?
Location: ?: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to A1

Kiln B1

Supplier: Unknown. Presumably not Fellner & Ziegler, but certainly not a continental manufacturer or Newells. They may have been made up locally.
Operated: 1907?-1929
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 559932,177529: Cold end 559928,177559: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions: 100’0”× 8’0”B / 6’3½”CD (metric 30.48 × 2.438 / 1.918).
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: : 0×2438: 10363×2438: 10363×1918: 30480×1918: Tyres at 2743, 11430, 20117, 28804
Cooler: rotary 48’0”× 4’10½” (metric 14.63 × 1.486) located under the firing floor
Cooler profile: 0×1486: 14630×1486: Tyres at 1524, 11278.
Fuel: indirect: Coal
Coal mill: indirect fired - fine coal was provided by a set of Griffin mills shared by kilns 1-6.
Exhaust: direct to stack.
Typical Output: 41 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 8.9 MJ/kg

Kiln B2

Operated: 1907?-1929
Location: Hot end 559938,177529: Cold end 559934,177560: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to B1

Kiln B3

Operated: 1907?-1929
Location: Hot end 559944,177530: Cold end 559940,177560: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions: 100’0”× 6’3½”CD (metric 30.48 × 1.918).
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: : 0×1918: 30480×1918: Tyres at 2743, 11430, 20117, 28804
Typical Output: 40 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 8.7 MJ/kg
Identical in all other respects to B1

Kiln B4

Operated: 1907?-1929
Location: Hot end 559950,177531: Cold end 559946,177561: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to B3

Kiln B5

Operated: 1907?-1929
Location: Hot end 559956,177532: Cold end 559952,177562: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions: 100’0”× 8’0”B / 6’3½”CD (metric 30.48 × 2.438 / 1.918).
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: : 0×1918: 1829×2438: 9144×2438: 10973×1918: 30480×1918: Tyres at 2743, 11430, 20117, 28804
Typical Output: 41 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 8.9 MJ/kg
Identical in all other respects to B1

Kiln B6

Operated: 1907?-1929
Location: Hot end 559962,177533: Cold end 559958,177563: entirely enclosed.
Identical in all other respects to B5

Kiln B7

Supplier: FLS
Operated: 7?/1910-1937: 1952-1957: 1959-1962: 1965-1966
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 559937,177572: Cold end 559979,177577: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions:

  • Initially metric 43.00 × 2.400B / 2.100CD
  • ?1920 42.98 × 2.100 (cooling) / 2.400B / 2.100CD

Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?

Kiln profile:

  • Original: 0×1725: 700×1725: 700×2100: 2100×2100: 2100×2400: 9450×2400: 11475×2100: 43000×2100: Tyres at 1300, 12350, 25100, 36850
  • After removal of cooler: 0×1829: 216×1829: 216×2100: 2057×2100: 2057×2400: 9431×2400: 11456×2100: 42976×2100: Tyres at 1276, 12326, 25076, 36826

Cooler: initially a concentric rotary cooler (metric 9.50 × 1.050 / 1.650) under the kiln, which must have been discarded: the initial front cone of the kiln was replaced at some time with a lifter cooling section: a rotary cooler was finally installed in 1956: 24’6”× 5’0” (metric 7.47 × 1.524); source unknown, but it might have been a piece of A-series kiln. The cooler was removed again in 1962.
Original cooler profile: 0×1200: 3640×1200: 3640×1050: 3920×1050: 3920×1650: 9500×1650: Tyre at 2150 with trunnion end bearing: Turning gear at tail end.
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: indirect: ball mill
Exhaust: direct to stack.
Typical Output: 1910-1937 80 t/d: 1952-1957 95 t/d: 1959-1966 92 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1910-1937 9.0 MJ/kg: 1952-1957 8.50 MJ/kg: 1959-1966 8.37 MJ/kg

Kiln B8

Operated: 7?/1910 -1937: 1952-1957: 1960-1962: 1965-1966
Location: Hot end 559936,177579: Cold end 559978,177585: entirely enclosed.
Cooler: initially as A7: replaced at some time with a lifter cooling section: a rotary cooler was finally installed in 1956: metric 9.34 × 1.600; source unknown, but it might have been a piece of A-series kiln. The cooler was removed again in 1960.
Identical in all other respects to B7

Kiln B9

Supplier: FLS
Operated: 1?/1912 -21/06/1973: 07/08/1975-18/03/1976: made lime 1973-1975
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end (as modified, cooler ports) 559938,177589: Cold end 560013,177599: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions:

  • Originally metric 70.10 × 3.000B / 2.700CD
  • From 1929 (from cooler ports) 75.32 × 3.000B / 2.718CD

Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?

Kiln profile:

  • Original: 0×2700: 2000×2700: 2000×3000: 12000×3000: 14650×2700: 70100×2700: Tyres at 1220, 15430, 30960, 47292, 64081
  • With recuperator (from cooler ports): -495×2591: 724×2591: 4000×3000: 17336×3000: 19952×2718: 75324×2718: Tyres at 6439, 21374, 36284, 52616, 69405

Cooler: initially a concentric rotary cooler (metric 13.00×1.350/2.100) under the kiln which must have been discarded: a Vickers Armstrong reflex “Recuperator” planetary section was added in ?1929: 12 × 13’9” × 3’6” (metric 4.19 × 1.067)
Fuel: Coal, except 1962-1968 Oil, and 1970-1975 mixed firing, average 34% oil
Coal mill: direct: Ernest Newell ball mill
Exhaust: initially direct to stack. An ID fan was added in the early 1930s and an electrostatic precipitator in 1936.
Typical Output: 1912-1919 201 t/d: 1919-1930 238 t/d: 1930-1940 255 t/d: 1940-1951 240 t/d: 1951-1962 283 t/d: 1962-1970 277 t/d: 1970-1976 271 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1912-1919 8.26 MJ/kg: 1919-1930 7.74 MJ/kg: 1930-1940 7.14 MJ/kg: 1940-1951 7.23 MJ/kg: 1951-1962 7.68 MJ/kg: 1962-1970 8.19 MJ/kg: 1970-1976 7.95 MJ/kg

Kiln B10

Supplier: Vickers Armstrong
Operated: 01/1930-08/1974
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end (cooler ports) 559937,177601: Cold end 560032,177611: entirely enclosed.
Dimensions: (from cooler ports) 314’7”× 13’10”B / 10’1¼”C / 13’1”D (metric 95.89 × 4.216 / 3.080 / 3.988)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: (from cooler ports): -584×3150: 864×3150: 4369×3607: 17729×3607: 19609×4216: 31801×4216: 33731×3080: 78638×3080: 80569×3988: 95885×3988: Tyres at 6807, 23876, 37135, 54127, 71425, 87884
Cooler: Reflex “Recuperator” planetary 12 × 18’2” × 3’11½” (metric 5.54 × 1.207)
Fuel: Coal, except 1962-1968 Oil, and 1970-1974 mixed firing, average 34% oil
Coal mill: direct: Ernest Newell ball mill
Exhaust: initially direct to stack. An ID fan was added in the early 1930s and an electrostatic precipitator in 1936.
Typical Output: 1930-1938 452 t/d: 1938-1945 483 t/d: 1945-1952 511 t/d: 1952-1961 518 t/d: 1961-1968 511 t/d: 1968-1974 467 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1930-1938 7.51 MJ/kg: 1938-1945 7.39 MJ/kg: 1945-1952 7.34 MJ/kg: 1952-1961 7.57 MJ/kg: 1961-1968 7.96 MJ/kg: 1968-1974 8.06 MJ/kg

Kiln B11

Supplier: Vickers Armstrong
Operated: 1937-07/03/1972: 09/07/1974-18/08/1976
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end (cooler ports) 559935,177611: Cold end 560041,177625: hot end enclosed.
Dimensions: (from cooler ports) 348’11”× 11’6”B / 10’1¼”C / 11’6”D (metric 106.35 × 3.505 / 3.080 / 3.505)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Slope: ?
Speed: ?
Drive: ?
Kiln profile: (from cooler ports): -584×3353: 864×3353: 4369×3505: 25629×3505: 28372×3080: 77953×3080: 80696×3505: 99517×3505: 102514×3353: 105258×3353: 105258×2134: 106350×2134: Tyres at 6883, 24409, 46279, 68148, 89484, 104445
Cooler: Reflex “Recuperator” planetary 12 × 14’7” × 3’11½” (metric 4.44 × 1.207)
Fuel: Coal, except 1962-1968 Oil, and 1970-1975 mixed firing, average 34% oil
Coal mill: direct: Ernest Newell ball mill
Exhaust: via ID fan and electrostatic precipitator.
Typical Output: 1937-1945 471 t/d: 1945-1954 500 t/d: 1954-1963 487 t/d: 1963-1976 451 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1937-1945 7.32 MJ/kg: 1945-1954 7.31 MJ/kg: 1954-1963 7.52 MJ/kg: 1963-1976 7.92 MJ/kg


Sources: Cook, pp 29, 56: Francis, pp 206, 258-259: Jackson, pp 267, 285, 303: Preston, p 172: Pugh, pp 28, 69, 78, 272: The Blue Circle, 12 (January 1958) pp 2-10: ibid, 30 (1976) pp 11: The Engineer, XCIV, July 11, 1902, p 45: Wouldham 100 Centenary Book, 1974 (Blue Circle ref WB15 1974): Victoria County History of Essex, Vol 2, p 493

Read the 1902 Engineer article.


Old Maps

Wouldham DetailThis is a composite map containing details from different eras that may not have co-existed.

Approximate capacity: tonnes per year
Wouldham (Essex) Capacity

Picture: ©English Heritage - NMR Aerofilms Collection. Britain from Above reference number EPW017655.
Britain from Above features some of the oldest and most valuable images of the Aerofilms Collection, a unique and important archive of aerial photographs. You can download images, share memories, and add information. By the end of the project in 2014, 95,000 images taken between 1919 and 1953 will be available online.
This was taken on 26/4/1927 and shows the plant from the west. All nine rotary kilns appear to be operating. The larger kilns 10 and 11 were installed in the area to the left. The wreckage of all the old chamber kilns and slurry lagoons had not yet been cleared. View in High Definition.

Read The Engineer at Grace's Guide.

The following is a transcript of an anonymous article that appeared in The Engineer, 94, 11 July 1902, p 45. It is believed to be out of copyright. It describes the Wouldham plant, around the time that the commissioning of the first-generation rotary kilns was completed. Note on Imperial units of the time: 1 ton = 1.016047 tonnes: 1 ft = 0.304799 m: 1 h.p. = 0.7457 kW.

CEMENT WORKS AT GRAYS

On Friday last a number of the shareholders of the Wouldham Cement Company (1900), Limited (Note 1), and guests visited the works of this company at West Thurrock, near Grays. The company was formed in the early part of 1900 to take over the existing works which had been for some time - we gather for upwards of thirty-five years (Note 2) - engaged in the manufacture of cement on the ordinary chamber kiln principle. The works were then known as the Lion Works, and the name given to the cement manufactured there was the Red Cross Brand. We understand that at the time the works were taken over they were in the hands of S. Pearson and Son, Limited, and, further, that this firm undertook to take all the cement made at the works. The new company at once decided to remodel the whole of its plant, and to install the newest type of machinery available, so as to start operations under the best known conditions. The object of inviting the shareholders and guests to visit the works on Friday was that they might see the new plant in operation, active working of the major part of the machinery having been recently commenced after a stoppage of some months, during which time opportunity has been taken to put everything in working order.

The company possesses its own chalk quarry (Note 3), situated, roughly speaking, half-a-mile from the works' site, and connected to it by two lines of railway approaching the quarry at two different points. Steam locomotives are employed to bring the chalk to the works. The other necessary constituent of cement - clay - is brought in barges from the river Medway, where the company owns land. Excellent arrangements have been made by means of wharves built out on piles into the river Thames - for the company's land has a considerable frontage to the river - whereby not only can this clay, coal, and coke be unloaded, but the cement, flints, &c., be despatched. Moreover, the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway passes close to the works and in between them and the quarry, and a siding is led on to the site. In fact, taking everything into consideration, the works would appear to be very fairly well placed, both as regards the obtaining of raw material and the disposal of finished cement. The total area of land - leasehold and freehold - is about 138 acres, which includes the chalk land. The amount of chalk available is said to be ample for the whole needs of the company - at all events, during the continuance of the lease - of which, so we gather, there are some fifty years or more to run - and at the full rate of output for which the works are designed, namely, 125,000 tons of cement per annum (Note 4).

At the present time the manufacture of cement is carried out in two different ways - that is to say, so far as the burning is concerned (Note 5); but before dealing with these, we will briefly describe the preliminary arrangements. The chalk is brought from the quarry in trucks, and passes over a weighbridge on its way to the wash mills. The trucks are emptied into the hopper of a crusher, which delivers equally into either of two wash mills, placed side by side, and adjacent to the crusher. The clay meanwhile has been conveyed to elevated structures placed one on either side of the wash mills. Here the proper quantity is weighed out and sent down shoots into the wash mills. The wash mills have, of course, revolving arms driven by bevel gearing worked from two parallel horizontal shafts. The overflow from the first set of wash mills makes its way in each case to second mills adjoining the others, and here the mixture of the two ingredients is further carried on, the resulting slurry flowing to a common sump. From this sump it is elevated by means of a bucket wheel to the stone mills (Note 6), of which there are thirteen, and the discharge from these flows by gravity into two mixers placed side by side. Quite close to these is the "doctor", or small mill, into which either chalk or clay may be shot, depending on whether the analyses, which are continuously being carried out, indicate that either the one or the other is required. The discharge from the "doctor" flows by gravity into the mixers, and the final overflow from these is ready for the operation of burning.

There are in all thirty-two chamber kilns, of which fourteen are of the most recent type. There is no need for us to describe the process of burning cement in these, as it has been done on several occasions in our columns. But, in addition to the chamber kilns, there are six rotary kilns of the latest kind. These, as the majority of our readers are no doubt aware, consist of iron cylinders lined with fire-brick, and mounted at an angle on rollers, so that they can be revolved by means of gearing. These kilns are open at both ends, and are 70 ft. long and 5 ft. in diameter. The slurry is pumped up to such a level that it can be fed into their topmost ends. Burning is brought about by the ignition of powdered coal blown into the lower opening by means of a jet of air (Note 7). The coal is ground on the spot in special machinery (Note 8) and is led up to huge hoppers placed well above the firing-floor level, the coal being supplied to the nozzle through a worm conveyor connecting with the delivery of the hopper. Inside the kiln it is conjectured that a temperature of 3000 deg. Fah. is attained (Note 9). The slurry as it enters the top end gradually gets dried, then heated, and before it gets to the bottom end has been, so it is stated, thoroughly burnt, the time of its passage being some 2½ hours. Our representative saw several of these kilns at work (Note 10). The burnt clinker falls into brick-lined revolving cylinders, through which it gradually passes to ground level, meeting on its way a crusher cooled by a jet of water (Note 11), so that it comes out of the cylinders practically cold, and of a remarkably uniform black colour.

We understand that the working of these kilns has given every satisfaction so far, both as regards cost and also as to the quality of the final cement produced. The tests obtained are stated to be phenomenal.

The clinker, whether produced in the chamber or rotary kilns, is first of all carefully picked and is then crushed. It is then elevated to the top floor of a building which contains in all seven ball and tube mills. Gradually as it descends the cement is ground to the desired fineness, till at length it is finished and is conveyed to the storage bins, which, we were told, were of a total capacity of upwards of 10,000 tons, divided into bins of 160 tons each. Extensive use is made throughout the works of band conveyors, which are put in wherever possible. By an ingenious device one moving band can be made to deliver into any desired bin by means of a specially constructed moveable carriage. Before it leaves the works the cement passes through an automatic weighing and sack-filling machine.

Practically everything, saving the main shafting, is driven electrically. The main machinery consists of eight Davey-Paxman economic boilers of 300 horse-power each. There is a fine horizontal cross-compound engine made by Hick, Hargreaves and Co., Limited, of 1113 indicated horse-power, which drives through gearing on to the main shaft. Subsidiary shafts are driven from this by ropes. Another compound engine by Davey, Paxman and Co., Limited, of 400 horse-power, drives shafting by means of ropes. There are two sets of double air compressors by Walker Brothers, of Wigan, these being for the air jets of the rotary kilns and for other purposes. For lighting and power there is a combined Willans-Electric Construction Company engine and dynamo, the latter delivering 585 amperes at 510 volts when running at 320 revolutions per minute. Tramways run everywhere, and evidently great pains have been taken to so design the works that there may be a minimum of handling of the material, both raw and finished, and there seems every reason to suppose that cement should be produced at these works both economically and well.

NOTES

Note 1. The plant had been acquired in 1898 by Pearson's, who were a civil engineering company, and wanted their own source of cement for several large projects, principal among which was the upgrading of Dover Harbour. The Wouldham Cement Company (1900), Limited, was formed as a Joint Venture between Pearson's and John Bazley White's (and subsequently APCM) whereby the plant was allowed to participate in the purchase of rotary kilns. The company did not join APCM, but was one of those with a formal "working relationship" with the combine. It was finally taken over by BPCM in 1911.

Note 2. Already the folk history of the plant was confused. The plant was 28 years old. This is probably a reference to Robertson's business in Wouldham, Kent, which began in 1863.

Note 3. This is now the Chafford Gorges Nature Reserve.

Note 4. This capacity was subsequently tripled, and the plant continued until 1976. The chalk lands were extended to the north and east.

Note 5. At this time it was about 50:50 chamber kiln and rotary kiln production.

Note 6. The plant was still finishing the slurry with flat stones: these were finally replaced with screeners ten years later.

Note 7. The Hurry & Seaman system was used, with fuel injected in a primary air stream with a velocity of several hundred metres per second. This resulted in a very short flame, necessary in very short kilns.

Note 8. As at Norman, coal was ground by a set of Griffin mills, providing a common supply of fine coal to all six kilns.

Note 9. A conjecture somewhat wide of the mark. The clinker temperature would be around 1450°C and the flame around 1900°C.

Note 10. I interpret this as meaning that of the six, more than two, but less than four, were running.

Note 11. This could be a reference to the Hurry & Seaman "double" cooler, consisting of two rotary cooler tubes with an intervening quencher/crusher. Without the drawings, which are hidden in the Blue Circle Archive, it is impossible to confirm this.

Picture: ©English Heritage - NMR Aerofilms Collection. Britain from Above reference number EPW017655.
Britain from Above features some of the oldest and most valuable images of the Aerofilms Collection, a unique and important archive of aerial photographs. You can download images, share memories, and add information. By the end of the project in 2014, 95,000 images taken between 1919 and 1953 will be available online.
This dates from 1927 and shows the plant from the west. Three more rotary kilns had been installed (top left). The chamber kilns were abandoned in 1912, but the wreckage of these and the slurry lagoons had not yet been cleared. The stack on the waterside to the right is that of the power-house. The power house was not completely replaced by grid power until the early 1950s. View in High Definition.

Original content © Dylan Moore 2011: commenced 07/01/2011: last edit 08/06/2017.

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